Society



Fat Baby graces the cover of The New Republic for the Chongqing Dockers

Fat Baby graces the cover The New Republic for the Chongqing Dockers

I am very excited to announce that my portrait of Fat Baby is currently gracing the cover of The New Republic. Last fall I traveled down to Chongqing to photograph what would become the turning point in the season for the Dockers, the city’s first American football team. Fat Baby was one of the many characters involved in the ups and downs of this amazing venture. I usually provide a short summary of the articles I shoot, but this one needs to be read in its entirety. Chris Beam does an amazing job capturing the absurdities and struggles of this band of warriors. It’s an excellent look into some of the mutating facets of contemporary Chinese culture. It’s so good, in fact, that Sony Pictures bought the movie rights to the story. Maybe you will see Fat Baby on the big screen one day. Definitely a sports star for the ages.

Matthew Niederhauser photographs the Chongqing Dockers for The New Republic

Matthew Niederhauser photographs the Chongqing Dockers for The New Republic

Matthew Niederhauser photographs the Chongqing Dockers for The New Republic

Matthew Niederhauser photographs the Chongqing Dockers for The New Republic



    The Modern Terracotta Army and Chinese Nationalism

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    The military parade for the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China was held on October 1, 2009. It took months of preparation. Over 10,000 troops and all manner of tanks, artillery, missiles, and aircraft processed down the Avenue of Eternal Peace with Chinese Communist Party leaders observing from Tiananmen Gate. The highly coordinated spectacle was one of the largest demonstrations of China’s growing military strength to date, clearly signaling the country’s intentions to take its place amongst the great world powers. The grand symbolic gesture was then immortalized in military museums and theme parks around China, but none more so than the Hengdian National Defense Technology Education Park. It displays an exact replica of every soldier, vehicle, and aircraft that took part in the march. Many of them sport distinguishing features like the Terracotta warriors that still stand testament to the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China. The massive diorama stretches for hundreds of meters and celebrates a militant nationalism that continues to seep into the core of Chinese society. China’s emergence as a world power is seen by many as a rightful status reclamation after centuries of humiliation at the hands of the West and other neighboring countries. There is little to stop them either.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.

    A complete diorama of the military parade celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China near Hengdian World Studios.



      Counterfeit Paradises: Minsk World Aircraft Carrier Theme Park

      Tourists pose in front of the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      Chinese nationalism continues to peak with the country’s emerging status as a world power, even if its military technology remains decades behind other nations. In 2012 the People’s Liberation Army christened its first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning, which in actuality is a retrofitted Soviet aircraft carrier, the Varyag. Right now the Liaoning is still years away from being fully operational. It was only recently that a Chinese-manufactured J-15 fighter jet successfully landed on and took off from the aircraft carrier. In open battle the Liaoning would be a large, rather useless, sitting target, but symbolically it is still very potent. Such ex-Soviet aircraft carriers also see other uses in China, including the Minsk, which is now part of the Minsk World military theme park near Shenzhen. Here Chinese patrons can wander exhibits extolling the prowess of the People’s Liberation Army and indulge in other martial fantasies. It is the perfect place to fantasize about China’s future military potential, especially with all the saber rattling occurring over the Diaoyu Islands.

      A couple poses for wedding photographs on the deck of the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      An attendent walks off the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      Tourists inspect the deck of the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      A tourist poses in front of a fake naval backdrop in a hold on the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      An attendent takes a nap in the cafe at the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      Old military aircraft pepper the deck of the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      A stage set up on the deck of the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.

      Highrises stand along the shoreline across from the Minsk World aircraft carrier theme park.



        “The God of Gamblers” – Macau Profile for The New Yorker

        Matthew Niederhauser's clipping for "The God of Gamblers" in The New Yorker

        Macau looms large on the iniquitous edges of Asia. It is a city of sin: filled with casinos, prostitutes and any other vice or luxury one could imagine. In many ways this is business as usual. Trafficking of women and general skullduggery date back to the earliest days of the Portuguese colony at the turn of the 16th century. Now the stakes are much higher though, and for many visitors, money is not an object. Macau currently draws the biggest “whales” in the world and most of these high rollers come straight out of mainland China. The increase in gambling revenues in Macau is unprecedented. Galaxy Entertainment tripled its profits during 2011, and the entire casino industry is already up 20% in the first quarter of this year compared to last. Macau outperforms the Las Vegas Strip nearly six times over and there is no end in sight.

        The already outrageous revenues posted by Macau casinos also appear to be the tip of the iceberg. It is largely acknowledged that a massive amount of cash moves through V.I.P. gambling rooms where high-stake bets are off the books. No one knows how deep that well goes. Money laundering and connections to triads run rampant through the “junkets” who shuttle wealthy mainland Chinese gamblers into Macau and collect their debts elsewhere in order to bypass currency limitations at the border. Macau is riding the tails of China’s economic boom and catering to the extravagant tastes of the Chinese nouveau riche looking to flex their often illicit financial muscles.

        At the top of the pyramid are two of the world’s richest men: Steve Wynn and Sheldon Adelson (also the largest contributor to Newt Gingrich’s campaign efforts). Both are in heated competition to rule Macau as their fortunes continue to skyrocket despite serious allegations of corruption and a spotty track record. A WikiLeaks spinoff called CasinoLeaks – Macau offers up condemning fare based on collected public records. Be sure to read Evan Osnos’ article in The New Yorker that features my photography. He does an amazing job navigating this intricate web of sordidness. More photographs that didn’t make the cut can be seen below.

        Patrons of Wynn Casino Macau gawk at the "Dragon of Fortune" that rises 28 feet out of the floor and symbolizes vitality, good fortune, and well-being.

        Children take photos of mermaids at the "Vquarium" in the City of Dreams.Patrons of Galaxy Macau gawk at the "Fortune Diamond" that emerges from a fountain with a light and music show in the main lobby every thirty minutes.Children take photos of mermaids at the "Vquarium" in the City of Dreams.

        Patrons of Galaxy Macau pose with the "Wishing Crystals" that are equipped with motion sensor technology that trigger special effects and bestow good luck on those nearby.Patrons of Wynn Casino Macau pose with the "Tree of Prosperity" that sports over 2,000 branches and 98,000 leaves composed of 24-karat gold and brass leaf - a true symbol of auspiciousness.Patrons of Wynn Casino Macau gawk at the "Dragon of Fortune" that rises 28 feet out of the floor and symbolizes vitality, good fortune, and well-being.

        Patrons of the Venetian Macau can take gondola rides through its giant indoor mall.The main casino floor of the City of Dreams is one of the largest in Macau.Patrons of the Venetian Macau can take gondola rides through its giant indoor mall.

        The pineapple-shaped Grand Lisboa towers over central Macau.A couple poses for wedding photographs outside the Venetian Macau.The pineapple-shaped Grand Lisboa towers over central Macau.



          Red China Rising: Bourgeoisie Tourism in the Communist Heartland

          A Mao Zedong effigy sits in front of a backdrop of his former home for tourist photos in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage site

          This is the second of a series of posts detailing the bourgeois practices of nouveau-riche, communist-heritage pilgrims who possess expectations and consumer desires that seem at odd with the core ideologies of the founding fathers of the Chinese Revolution. Armed with cash and a new sense of leisure, most of these fledgling tourists first make their way to Shaoshan/韶山, the birthplace of Mao Zedong. A slew of “red” products and trinkets are available around every corner even in the face of sincere reverence for founding Chinese Communist Party leaders that borderlines on idolization. Elderly tourists kowtow to statues of Mao Zedong while company retreats sing “red” songs and pledge oaths. These blind followers make easy prey for egregious tourist traps such as the Shao Yue Palace Maoist Family History Show, where attendants usher punters into Mao Zedong veneration halls, hand out lucky ornaments, ask them to bow to a Mao Zedong statue three times and then try to charge them for the “blessed” ornaments. Some estimate the value of the entire “red” industry at $1.5 billion dollars and Mao Zedong’s hometown is at the epicenter. Also check out the last post in the series on “The Defense of Yan’an” reenactment.

          A company tourist group pays reverence to Mao Zedong by bowing before his large statue near his former home in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage site

          Busts of Mao Zedong stand outside a "red" product store in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage siteTourists line up to enter Mao Zedong's former home while others take photos outside in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage siteStatues of Mao Zedong sit inside a "red" product store in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage site

          Attendants at the "Shao Yue Palace Maoist Family History Show" tout "red" products to tourists before ushering them into Mao Zedong veneration halls in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage siteTourists have been coming to Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage site, for almost fifty yearsA "red" product vendor sits at her stall near Mao Zedong's former home in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage site

          An advertisement to have your photo taken in traditional CCP soldier garb in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage siteA Mao Zedong effigy for tourist photos in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage siteRecreations of Mao Zedong's calligraphy for sale in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage site

          Tourists wait in a long line outside of Mao Zedong's former home while a tour guide in a pink jumpsuit talks on her cellphone in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage siteMao Zedong literature line the stalls near his former home in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage siteA child poses in front of Mao Zedong's former home in Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong and CCP pilgrimage site



            Selling Out History: China’s National Museum of Luxury

            Paparazzi cue up on celebrities at the National Museum of China for the Bulgari - 125 Years of Italian Magnificence exhibition opening.

            After a four-year, $380 million refurbishment, the National Museum of China finally opened its doors to the public as the largest exhibition space on the planet, beating out both the Louvre in Paris and the Hermitage in St. Petersburg. Even though now touted as one of the world’s premiere cultural institutions, it has failed to impress either international or domestic visitors with it’s shrill depiction of the history of the Chinese Communist Party in its centerpiece “The Road of Rejuvenation” exhibition. Key epochs such as the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution are left out of its glossy displays and poorly translated placards. Still, such a propagandistic history of modern China was expected in the first place. What really shocked many visitors was the blatant commercialization of the National Museum of China within its first two design exhibitions: “Louis Vuitton Voyages” and “Bulgari: 125 Years of Italian Magnificence.” Museum directors claim such exhibitions are revitalizing interest in the space, but it is more a sellout at the heart of the nation a stone’s throw from Mao Zedong’s tomb. Critics remain baffled as to how such a key cultural institution could blatantly promote such crass consumerism, especially surrounding the 90th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party which was also linked to an exhibition of historical paintings adjacent to vintage Louis Vuitton trunks and sparkling Bulgari jewels. Such opulent items stand counter to the core ideologies of the founding fathers of the Chinese Communist Party celebrated a short distance away, as well as the core mission of the museum itself that is purportedly dedicated to promoting Chinese culture instead of foreign luxury brands. These photographs juxtapose the “The Road of Rejuvenation” and “Masterpieces of Modern Chinese Fine Arts” exhibitions advocating the socialist roots of the Chinese Communist Party with the champagne-fueled openings of the “Louis Vuitton Voyages” and “Bulgari: 125 Years of Italian Magnificence” exhibitions. Such paradoxes stand at the center of the Chinese Communist Party’s attempts to rectify its embrace of rampant free-market consumerism with its socialist heritage.

            Chinese Communist Party officials pose in front of paintings at at a special exhibition celebrating the 90th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party at the National Museum of China.

            Attendees photograph themselves at the National Museum of China during the Louis Vuitton Voyages exhibition opening.A painting depicts Mao Zedong with workers at a special exhibition of paintings celebrating the 90th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party at the National Museum of China.Attendees photograph themselves at the National Museum of China during the Louis Vuitton Voyages exhibition opening.

            A massive showcase room for vintage Louis Vuitton lies at the heart of the National Museum of China for the Louis Vuitton Voyages exhibition opening.A diorama shows the conditions of early industrial labor in China at the National Musuem of China's "Road of Rejuvination" exhibition.Attendees try to figure out how to use a camera at the National Musuem of China's "Road of Rejuvination" exhibition.

            Celebrities show off their jewelry at the National Museum of China for the Bulgari - 125 Years of Italian Magnificence exhibition opening.A well-heeled crowd surrounds the central bar serving free Moet at the National Museum of China for the Louis Vuitton Voyages exhibition opening.A diorama shows advanced military technology at the National Musuem of China's "Road of Rejuvination" exhibition.

            Attendees inspect a painting of Japanese troops massacring civilians during World War II at the National Musuem of China's "Road of Rejuvination" exhibition.A red carpet snakes up to the National Museum of China for the Bulgari - 125 Years of Italian Magnificence exhibition opening.Attendees crowd against display cases to inspect the jewelry at the National Museum of China for the Bulgari - 125 Years of Italian Magnificence exhibition opening.

            A mural depicts the surrender of the Kuomintang at the National Musuem of China's "Road of Rejuvination" exhibition.A well-heeled crowd packs the main entrance hall at the National Museum of China for the Louis Vuitton Voyages exhibition opening.Attendees can inspect a recreation of the rostrum used by Mao Zedong to declare the foundation of the People's Republic of China at the National Musuem of China's "Road of Rejuvination" exhibition.

            Contemporary art installations are scattered about the National Museum of China for the Louis Vuitton Voyages exhibition opening.



              Thames Town: A Quaint Corner of Shanghai

              The skyline of Thames Town includes a replica of the Saint Mary Redcliffe Church in Bristol and the Millenium Bridge in Norwich.

              This place is well documented, but fits into my Counterfeit Paradises series as Shanghai remains one of the fastest growing cities on the planet. In order to keep up with demand, the municipal government must supply housing for up to 400,000 new residents every year. In an effort to provide a bit of flash and diversity to the monotony of Chinese urban sprawl, developers broke ground on Songjiang New City which included nine satellite villages utilizing design elements from various European countries. Thames Town, modeled after quaint English hamlets, was the centerpiece and eventually the largest debacle after failing to attract permanent residents. The English-themed restaurants and stores remain shuttered while the streets only see the passing of young couples posing for wedding photographs. Far from the hustle and bustle of downtown Shanghai, the Thames Town Church seems poised to continue without a congregation for the foreseeable future.

              Bronzes of famous English figures dot Thames Town, incuding a pouty Winston Churchill.

              Bronzes of famous English figures dot Thames Town, incuding a demure Princess Diana.An old man fishes on the artificial lake near the Thames Town yacht club.The most common sight on the streets of Thames Town are couples using the faux English environment for wedding photography.

              The most common sight on the streets of Thames Town are couples using the faux English environment for wedding photography.Bronzes of famous English figures dot Thames Town, incuding the ever-popular Harry Potter.The most common sight on the streets of Thames Town are couples using the faux English environment for wedding photography.

              The most common sight on the streets of Thames Town are couples using the faux English environment for wedding photography.Thames Town comes complete with identical English telephone boxes.Gated communities with expensive villas line the empty Thames Town business district.

              A resident takes her dog for a walk in one of the gated developments that surround Thames Town.The most common sight on the streets of Thames Town are couples using the faux English environment for wedding photography.The suburban English villas sometimes incorporate Chinese elements such as this large stone marker for the house number.

              The Thames Times offices never opened in the first place.Thames Town security all sport the same red outfits, but rarely find themselves busy.The chip shop in Thames Town was copied from a building in Dorset but closed down long ago.



                Red China Rising: From Revolution to Reaction – “The Defense of Yan’an”

                Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.

                As the Chinese Communist Party celebrates it’s 90th anniversary this year, nationalistic tourists are flocking in droves to communist heritage sites across China. Shaoshan, the birthplace of Mao Zedong, and Yan’an, the cradle of the Chinese Revolution where the Long March ended, now cater to millions of tourists every year. This is going to be the first of a series of posts detailing the bourgeois leisure practices of these nouveau riche pilgrims who possess expectations and consumer desires that seem at odd with the core ideologies of the founding fathers of the Chinese Revolution. The most elaborate attraction in the country is the extremely popular “The Defense of Yan’an” battle reenactment. This spectacle became all the rage thanks to a special twist: for an extra fee observers can don soldier fatigues and participate in the fray. Not only can you observe a pseudo-historical reenactment that spends an inordinate amount of time praising the leadership of Mao, vilifying the KMT and demonstrating the harmonious integration of Shaanxi folk life with communist principles, but you can also tote around guns, get close to the explosions and run wildly around a makeshift village in the name of celebrating revolutionary heritage. The theater of history plays out every afternoon with extra matinees on weekends.

                Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.

                Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.

                Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.

                Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.

                Tourists can participate in "The Defence of Yan'an" battle reinactment for an extra fee. Here CCP soldiers prepare to rush the battlefield.



                  Tianducheng: The Heavenly Paris of China

                  The underused and rugged green space surrounding the fake Eiffel Tower in Tianducheng is now utilized by local laborers for small garden plots

                  As new cities continue to spring up across China almost overnight, real estate developers are taking architecture and urban design in wildly different directions to tap into the lucrative luxury housing market. Tianducheng/天都城 was one of those hopelessly trying to set a bold new precedent for modern and cultured living with it’s fake Eiffel Tower overlooking Parisian townhouses. The knockoff of the 13th arrondissement, however, remains sparsely populated and only draws well-heeled clientele to its adjacent resort and villas modeled after Fontainebleau Palace. For now, many of the apartments are occupied by groups of migrant laborers working on surrounding megablocks, while other locals have gone so far as to appropriate the green space surrounding the Eiffel Tower for private ad hoc farming plots. Otherwise Tianducheng along with the attached French-themed village park is mainly used as a backdrop for wedding photography companies hoping to give young Chinese couples a taste of The City of Light while balancing their desire for traditional nuptial observances.

                  A young Chinese couple poses for wedding photographs on a hilltop in the French-themed village park overlooking Tianducheng

                  A Chinese groom hoists his bride into the air on a small beach overlooking the Tianducheng International Holiday Hotel which is modeled after the Fontainebleau PalaceOverlooking Tianducheng and the French-themed village parkA young Chinese couple poses in front of a horse and carriage in the French-themed village park attached to Tianducheng

                  Young Chinese couples are filmed posing within a gazebo adorned with flowers

                  A young Chinese couple poses on the banks of Swan Lake across from a villa development next to the Tianducheng International Holiday Hotel

                  The fake Eiffel Tower lights up the night in TianduchengYoung Chinese couples line up beneath a fake tree to film a champagne toast for their wedding ceremoniesSmall garden plots and Parisan-style townhouses surround the fake Eiffel Tower in Tianducheng

                  A young Chinese couple is filmed kissing on a boat swing next to an advertisement for wedding photographyA mixture of western and eastern traditions are incorporated for the filmed wedding ceremoniesA young Chinese couple is filmed walking through a gazebo



                    Counterfeit Paradises: Windows on the World

                    Visitors scramble up the steps of the United States Capital beneath Mount Rushmore at Windows on the World

                    International vacations are a must for the burgeoning number of nouveau riche across China. A well-used passport is a sure sign of fulfilling a “modern” and “cultured” lifestyle and completes the trifecta of high social status along with ownership of multiple homes and foreign luxury cars. Even in the face of the global economic downturn, China continues to boast the fastest growing outbound tourism market in the world. In 2009, the average expenses paid by Chinese for international travel went up 21% and will continue to grow as more and more flex their purchasing muscle. In Shenzhen, however, a favorite travel destination remains the Windows on the World. A short subway ride from the city center, the park boasts over a hundred small-scale replicas of famous monuments and buildings from all over the world. Here Chinese can fantasize about visiting foreign countries and practice taking tourist photographs. This make-believe space is one of consumer indoctrination and a selling point for a notion of civility that will most likely prove as empty as other social movements in China’s past.

                    A child wearing bunny ears poses for her parents in Piazza San Marco at Windows on the World

                    Crowds fight for position in front of the Sphinx and Giza Pyramids at Windows on the WorldA child attaches herself to the United States White House at Windows on the WorldMount Fuji and the torii gate from the Itsukushima Shrine feature prominently in the Japanese section at Windows on the World

                    A visitor strolls by Mont Saint-Michel at Windows on the WorldTwo ladies pose in front of Angkor Wat at Windows on the World

                    A man crouches in front of the Versailles with Saint Peter's Basilica overlooking its garden at Windows on the WorldA child poses with Native American Indians at Windows on the WorldA child flashes the peace sign in the square in front of Saint Peter's Basilica at Windows on the World

                    Visitors fight for position in front of Niagra at Windows of the WorldA child crawls onto the London Bridge with Parliament in the background at Windows on the WorldA man poses in Gamehenge at Windows on the World

                    A child sits on the shoulder of his father in front of the Taj Mahal at Windows on the WorldVisitors paddle around the Statue of Liberty and Easter Island with Rio de Jenairo's Christo overlooking at Windows on the WorldVisitors clamber over Abu Simbel at Windows on the World





                      All content © 2014 to Matthew Niederhauser